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  MLA Style


You can either use citations or footnotes or endnotes to refer the reader to where you found the information.

Provide citations whenever you use:
    (a.) a summary in your own words of someone else's ideas.
    (b.) a direct quotation
    (c.) a table, chart, or diagram taken from someone else's work.

Your own independent ideas and those facts that are considered common knowledge are not footnoted or cited.
e.g. The sky is blue.  <- This is common knowledge... if the sky isn't blue what other colour would it be???

Each bracketed note or citation must POINT directly to the entry for this source in the Works Cited list.

  • If there is only one work by a particular author, simply give author's last name and the page number
    e.g. (Walker 12)
  • If a work has two authors, give the last name of each and the page number.
    e.g. (Moore and Smith 310-14)
  • If the Works Cited list contains more than one work by the same author, include the title and the page number in the citation
    e.g. (Stevens, Chemistry 299)

Identify the LOCATION of the borrowed information as specifically as possible.

  • Include the volume number where relevant
    e.g. (Smith 2: 123)
  • In literary works give specific information such as act, scene, and line numbers
    e.g. (Shakespeare, King Lear II, i, 22)
  • Omit page number for one page articles or works arranged alphabetically, e.g. encyclopedia
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