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  MLA Style

Guideline for Footnotes and Endnotes

Footnotes and Endnotes are used to refer readers to the exact source found in the works cited list.  You can either use citations or footnotes or endnotes to refer the reader to where you found the information.

So what is the difference between footnotes and endnotes?
Footnotes are placed at the bottom of the very page where the direct reference was made, while endnotes are placed at the end of the essay on a separate page.

To make a footnote or endnote you must use place a superscript number after the quote.  For a footnote you must do the same superscript number at the bottom of the page followed by information on your reference.  If you are doing an endnote you follow the same instruction as that of the footnote, but you place it at the end of the essay.  Each entry is tab spaced or indented 5 spaces from the margin.

"The Internet has more than 1 billion users."1

-------bottom of page-----
    1 Scott 45.

If you are mentioning a piece of work for the first time you must include a complete entry.  Afterwards you may place just the page number and author.

So your first entry should look like this:
Elizabeth May, At the Cutting Edge: The Crisis in Canada's Forests (Toronto: Key Porter Books Limited, 1998) 24.

Every following one would be either:
    2 May 45.
Or if they are consecutive entries you may use Ibid:
    3 Ibid. 70-73

Audio Recordings

     16 Ginger, Solid Ground, Nettwerk Productions,
Vancouver, SPRO003, 1994.


    18 National Parks: The Multimedia Family Guide, CD-ROM, Woodland Hills, CA: Cambrix Publishing, 1995.

Films, videotapes, filmstrips, slide programs

     15 Eternal Earth, prod. Rhombus Media, dir. Larry
Weinstein, 1987, 16 mm, 28 min. 37 sec.


    19 Ray Weber, "50 States and Capitals," 8 Apr. 1999, 20 Sept. 1999 <>.

Book by one author

    1 Michael Ignatieff, The Warrior's Honor: Ethnic War and the Modern Conscience (Toronto: Viking, 1998) 188.

Book by two authors

    2 Chris Maynard and Bill Scheller, Manifold
Destiny: The One! The Only! Guide to Cooking on Your
Car Engine! (New York: Villard Books, 1998) 144-145.

Book by three or more authors

    3 Jack Canfield, et al., Chicken Soup for the Kid's Soul: 101 Stories of Courage, Hope and Laughter, (Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, Inc., 1998) 68.

Book with no author or editor listed

    4 The 1990 Charlton Coin Guide, 29th ed.
(Toronto: Charlton Press, 1989) 39.

Book with an editor

    6 Carmen DaSilva, "Life Insurance as a Tool for Estate Planning," 
Death & Taxes: Beating One of the Two Certainties in Life
, ed. 
Jerry White (Los Angeles: Warwick Publishing, 1998) 57-71.

An encyclopedia article with author

    8 Arthur B. Ford, "Antarctica," New Encyclopedia Britannica, 1997, Vol. 13, 788-804.

An encyclopedia article with no author

     7 "Malcolm X," Encyclopedia of Social Issues,
1997, Vol. 4, 985-987.

A magazine or newspaper article

    10 Michael Ventura, "Buffy, Nikita, Xena:
Warrior Women," Psychology Today Nov./Dec. 1998: 58-62.

Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author

     11 More Natural Dry Eye Relief with TEARS
NATURALE II Artificial Tears (Mississauga, ON: Alcon
Canada Inc., 1997).

Government publication

    13 Canada, Ministry of Natural Resources, Annual Report, 1986 (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1986) 29.


     14 Hellmut Longin, President, European Steel Industries,
Personal interview, 31 Aug. 1999.

Sacred Texts

    1 Matthew 12:1-8.
  Take me home again

Back to Main MLA Style

New Media
Audio Recordings
Films, videotapes, filmstrips, slide programs

One author
Two authors
Three/more authors
Author/editor not listed
With an editor
Encyclopedia article
Encyclopedia article with no author

Newspaper/ Magazine/ Publications
A magazine or newspaper article
Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author
Government publication

Sacred Texts