Guideline for Footnotes and
Footnotes and Endnotes are used to refer readers
to the exact source found in the works cited list. You can either use citations
or footnotes or endnotes to refer the reader to where you found the
So what is the difference between footnotes and
Footnotes are placed at the bottom of the very page where the direct reference
was made, while endnotes are placed at the end of the essay on a separate page.
To make a footnote or endnote you must use place
a superscript number after the quote. For a footnote you must do the same
superscript number at the bottom of the page followed by information on your
reference. If you are doing an endnote you follow the same instruction as
that of the footnote, but you place it at the end of the essay. Each
entry is tab spaced or indented 5 spaces from the margin.
"The Internet has more than 1 billion users."1
-------bottom of page-----
1 Scott 45.
If you are mentioning a piece of work for the
first time you must include a complete entry. Afterwards you may place
just the page number and author.
So your first entry should look like this:
1 Elizabeth May, At the Cutting Edge: The Crisis in
Canada's Forests (Toronto: Key Porter Books Limited, 1998) 24.
Every following one would be either:
2 May 45.
Or if they are consecutive entries you may use Ibid:
3 Ibid. 70-73
16 Ginger, Solid Ground, Nettwerk Productions,
Vancouver, SPRO003, 1994.
National Parks: The Multimedia
Family Guide, CD-ROM, Woodland Hills, CA: Cambrix Publishing, 1995.
Films, videotapes, filmstrips,
15 Eternal Earth, prod. Rhombus Media, dir. Larry
Weinstein, 1987, 16 mm, 28 min. 37 sec.
Ray Weber, "50 States and
Capitals," 8 Apr. 1999, 20 Sept. 1999 <http://www.50states.com>.
Book by one author
1 Michael Ignatieff, The Warrior's Honor: Ethnic War and the Modern Conscience
(Toronto: Viking, 1998) 188.
Book by two authors
2 Chris Maynard and
Bill Scheller, Manifold
Destiny: The One! The Only! Guide to Cooking on Your
Car Engine! (New York: Villard Books, 1998) 144-145.
Book by three or more authors
Canfield, et al., Chicken Soup for the Kid's Soul: 101 Stories of
Courage, Hope and Laughter, (Deerfield Beach, FL: Health
Communications, Inc., 1998) 68.
Book with no author or editor
4 The 1990
Charlton Coin Guide, 29th ed.
(Toronto: Charlton Press, 1989) 39.
Book with an editor
6 Carmen DaSilva,
"Life Insurance as a Tool for Estate Planning,"
Death & Taxes: Beating One of the Two Certainties in Life, ed.
Jerry White (Los Angeles: Warwick Publishing, 1998) 57-71.
An encyclopedia article with
Arthur B. Ford, "Antarctica," New Encyclopedia Britannica,
1997, Vol. 13, 788-804.
An encyclopedia article with
7 "Malcolm X," Encyclopedia of Social Issues,
1997, Vol. 4, 985-987.
A magazine or newspaper
10 Michael Ventura,
"Buffy, Nikita, Xena:
Warrior Women," Psychology Today Nov./Dec. 1998: 58-62.
Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure
with no author
11 More Natural Dry Eye Relief with TEARS
NATURALE II Artificial Tears (Mississauga, ON: Alcon
Canada Inc., 1997).
Canada, Ministry of Natural Resources, Annual
Report, 1986 (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1986) 29.
14 Hellmut Longin, President, European Steel Industries,
Personal interview, 31 Aug. 1999.
1 Matthew 12:1-8.